The Amazon is the region of South America that contains the largest wet tropical rainforest on the planet. For the most part, it is drained by the Amazon River, the longest and largest river in the world, in an extensive basin that has more than 1,000 tributaries. The importance of the Amazon rainforest is global. From a biological point of view it shelters a great variety of species of flora and fauna, and a high number of endemisms; From the anthropological point of view, it´s synonymous with cultural diversity, with 420 different indigenous peoples, 86 languages and 650 dialects (UNEP and ACTO, 2009).
There are different expressions to refer to this part of the planet, among which Amazonia, Panamazonia, Amazon Region and Greater Amazonia are the most recognized. These terms have arisen from studies that have taken place in the region with different approaches, each having a different territorial expression, not always coinciding in all its limits.
Known under one of these terms, in addition to the Amazon rainforest, is the Amazon basin, to the Nations that have territory in them, to the States that promote, through joint actions, the sustainable development of the region within the framework of the Amazon Cooperation Treaty Organiozation -ACTO-, to the artificial limits of political-administrative convenience, to the towns that inhabit it and to its characteristic terrestrial and aquatic fauna.
The Great Amazon Region, involves environmental and territorial concepts and serves as a frame of reference for the SINCHI Institute (Gutierrez, Acosta and Salazar, 2004). There are eight countries that together with French Guiana have territories in the region: Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, Guyana, Peru, Suriname and Venezuela.